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Brushless Linear Motors

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image of Brushless Linear Motors, a type of linear motor
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The 3 phase brushless linear motors, also known as a linear servo motors, are direct drive motors that are ideal for long stroke, closed loop servo, linear motion applications. They can be used at speeds up to 240 in / sec [6 m / sec]. They are capable of very precise position, velocity and acceleration control when coupled with a linear encoder for position feedback. 

The 3-phase coil assembly can be commutated trapezoidally using integral Hall Effects or sinusodially using software commutation in conjunction with the appropriate amplifier or motion controller and encoder feedback. 

The power to the motor (from a brushless servo amplifier) is supplied via a motor power cable. 

Larger motors with higher forces are available, consult factory for details and drawings. Custom motors can be designed to fit customer specific application needs.

Applications:
  • Pick and Place Machines
  • Coordinate measuring machines
  • Laser and Water jet cutters
  • Vision Inspection Equipment

Ironless Motor
The encapsulated moving coil assembly moves through a gap in the long "U" shaped magnet assembly. A customer supplied bearing system is required to guide the moving coil assembly and to maintain a .025" [0.63 mm] clearance between the magnet and the coil assembly. There is no attractive force between the motor coil and the magnet assembly.

Advantages:
  • Unlimited stroke length
  • Zero cogging
  • High speed and accelerations of light loads
  • Low moving mass
  • Multiple motors coils inside a single magnet assembly
  • Uses standard 3 phase brushless amplifier

Ironless motors are available in 6 different cross sections and 5 different coil assembly lengths. Forces range from 1.2 lbs [5.3 N] to 173 lbs [771 N] continuous (100% duty cycle), 3.6 lbs [16.0 N] to 517 lbs [2300 N] peak (10% duty cycle).

Ironless motors consist of a stationary magnet track and a moving coil assembly.

Stationary Magnet Assembly: The "U" shaped magnet assembly is made up of nickel-plated steel back iron and Neodymium permanent magnets. The magnets are bonded to the 2 parallel steel plates and the plates are bolted to a steel spacer bar. Threaded and thru holes are available in the steel back iron for mounting the magnet assembly to the customer supplied base plate. The magnet assembly is available in widths from 0.82" to 1.73 " [20.8 mm to 44 mm]. The length of the magnet assembly is a function of the stroke. Single piece magnet assemblies are available as long as 40” [1036 mm] for all motors. Longer strokes will be supplied in modular sections.

Moving Coil Assembly: The coil assembly is comprised of a 3 phase copper motor winding, an aluminum mounting bracket and an optional Hall Effect board that are all vacuum encapsulated with epoxy. Mounting holes in the aluminum bracket are provided for attaching the secondary to the moving member of the customer supplied table assembly. The coil assembly is available in many different widths and lengths, to meet the customers force and packaging requirements. Multiple coils can be supplied with a single magnet assembly to allow for independent moving heads or they can be coupled together to produce larger forces. Single piece motors are available as long as 5.3” [134.6 mm] for series BLDM-A & BLDM-B motors, 10.1” [256.5 mm] for series BLDM-C motors, 14.9” [378 mm] for series BLDM-D motors, 17.3” [439 mm] for series BLDM-E motors, and 20.0” [508 mm] for series BLDM-F motors. 

Iron Core Motor
The encapsulated moving coil assembly moves over the flat magnet assembly. A customer supplied bearing system is required to guide the moving coil assembly and to maintain a .025" [0.63 mm] clearance between the magnet and the coil assembly. There is an attractive force between the motor coil and the magnet assembly.

Advantages:
  • Unlimited stroke length
  • Magnetic-attractive force between coil assembly and magnet track used as preload for bearing system
  • Coil features reduce cogging
  • High speed and accelerations of heavy loads
  • Multiple motors coils on a single magnet assembly
  • Uses standard 3 phase brushless amplifier

Iron core motors are available in 7 different cross sections and 7 different coil assembly lengths. Forces range from 18 lbs [80 N] to 1164 lbs [5179 N] continuous (100% duty cycle), 48 lbs [213 N] to 3105 lbs [13813 N] peak (10% duty cycle).

Iron core motors consist of a stationary magnet track and a moving coil assembly.

Stationary Magnet Assembly: The flat magnet assembly is made up of nickel-plated steel back iron and Neodymium permanent magnets. The magnets are bonded to the one side of a steel plate. Threaded and thru holes are available in the steel back iron for mounting the magnet assembly to the customer supplied base plate. The magnet assembly is available in widths from 2.5" to 10.5 " [63.5 mm to 267 mm]. The length of the magnet assembly is a function of the stroke. Single piece magnet assemblies are available as long as 39.8” [1010.9 mm] for all motors. Longer strokes will be supplied in modular sections.

Moving Coil Assembly: The coil assembly is comprised of a 3 phase copper motor winding around a steel lamination and an optional Hall Effect board that are all vacuum encapsulated with epoxy. Mounting holes in the steel lamination are provided for attaching the secondary to the moving member of the customer supplied table assembly. The coil assembly is available in many different widths and lengths, to meet the customers force and packaging requirements. Multiple coils can be supplied with a single magnet assembly to allow for independent moving heads or they can be coupled together to produce larger forces. Single piece motors are available as long as 6.4” [162.6 mm] for BLSM-1 series motors, 11.8” [299.7 mm] for BLSM-2 series motors, 17.2” [436.9 mm] for BLSM-3 series motors, 22.6” [574mm] for BLSM-4 series motors, 28” [711.2 mm] for BLSM-5 series motors, 33.4” [848.4 mm] for BLSM-6 series motors, and 38.8” [985.2 mm] for BLSM-7 series motors.

    Brushless Motor Product number Chart



    Brushless Motor Product number Chart

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    Click to enlarge images. BLDM product info drawing

    BLST product info drawing
    Required Electronics:
    The motor requires either a trapezoidal or sinusoidal 3 phase brushless amplifier with power supply that is rated with sufficient current and voltage to meet the motion requirements. The inductance of the linear motor coil should be greater than the minimum load inductance of the servo amplifier.
    Environmental Considerations:
    The brushless motor is an open type motor and should not be mounted in an environment that is wet or excessively dirty. It should be protected with some type of bellows or cover when installed by the customer.
    Mounting:
    The brushless linear motor should be mounted to flat (better than .003"/ ft [246 microns / m] and stiff surface. Threaded and thru holes in the magnet assembly and threaded holes in the coil assembly are present for the mounting of the motor to the customers system. A cable carrier must be provided by the customer to route the motor and Hall Effect cable. The motor may be mounted in any orientation.
    Maintenance:
    The ball bearing guides in the stage should be periodically lubricated with the manufacturers recommended grease. The open glass encoder scale should be wiped with a glass cleaner occasionally to ensure trouble free operation.

    Installation Refer to Figure 2-1.
    1. Install the magnet assembly onto the machine mounting base.
    2. With the slide assembly removed from the rails, install the coil assembly onto the slide, tightening the mounting screws.
    3. Place a non–magnetic shim over the magnets, sized to cover all the magnets. (The shim thickness must be equivalent to the air gap specification. The normal air gap is 0.025” ± 0.005” unless otherwise specified).
    4. Install and push the slide along the rails, positioning the coil assembly directly over the shim. (An alternate method is to install the slide on a set of rails that is identical to the one being used. Butt the temporary rails to the system rails and transfer the slide onto the system rails.)
    For either method, it is extremely important to uniformly tighten the mounting screws. Improper tightening will bend the primary or secondary and damage the motor.
    If there is not enough space to install the coil assembly as described, use this alternate procedure.

    Alternate Installation Refer to Figure 2-1.
    1. Place the non–magnetic shim on the magnet track.
    2. With a firm grip on the coil assembly, place one end of it on the shim and slide it into place, centered over the magnets. Be careful not to let the magnet and coil “Slam” together.
    3. Align the fastening screw holes on the slide with the holes on the coil assembly.
    4. Loosely install all the mounting screws.
    5. Insert enough shims between the slide and the coil assembly to fill the gap.
    6. Tighten all the mounting screws, alternating in a systematic manner while tightening such that the coil assembly is drawn–up evenly leaving a uniform air gap between the coil assembly and the magnets.
    This air gap must be maintained along the entire length of the magnet assembly i.e.; the coil assembly must never touch the magnets at any point when moving along the length of the magnet assembly and the air gap specification must be maintained at all times.
    7. Remove the shim that sets the air gap prior to operation.

    Figure 2-1 Air Gap Adjustment

    Slide


    Coil Assembly


    Rail

    Magnet


    Base
    Shim(if necessary)

    Air Gap(0.30 +- 0.005)









    Multiple Coil Assembly Operation:
    In addition to maintaining an air gap, multiple coil assemblies must also maintain a spacing factor of 1.8”. In other words, the space between coil assemblies may vary, however, the distance from the front end of the first coil assembly to the front end of the next must be a multiple of 1.8”. See Figure 2-2. Ensure that this spacing is established at the time of installation.

    Figure 2-2 Multiple Coil Assemblies
    Rail


    Magnet Assembly


    Base

    Coil Assembly
    Cable
    n(1.8")









    Operation Considerations:
    The motor must always be operated within the specified operating parameter limits. Exceeding those limits will permanently damage the motor Refer to the motor specifications for operating parameter limits.
    The motor must never touch the magnets during operation. Refer to “Adjust Air Gap”. Remove the shim that sets the air gap between the motor and the magnets prior to operation.
    Note: Be aware that the total bearing load includes the magnetic attractive force.
    The following steps must be completed to ensure safe and proper operation.
    1. Verify that all electrical wiring and cables are properly connected. Refer to the manual provided with the control for this information.
    2. Adjust the control continuous current limit to match the motor’s continuous current specifications.
    3. Adjust the servo drive current to match the motor’s current specification.
    4. Refer to the motor specifications for operating parameters. Adjust the control parameters as necessary to the motor data specifications.
    5. Adjust the control for the proper P.I.D. loop tuning. Begin at a low gain setting and increase the gain as necessary.

    AY1763A00 Leadwire Connection

    Motor Cable

       

    Hall Cable

     

    Limit Cable

       

    Signal Name

    Wire Color

     

    Signal Name

    Wire Color

    Signal Name

    Wire Color

     
     

    LinDrive

    Trap

           

    Motor Phase A (U)

    Red

    Black

    Hall 1

    White

    Limit + Output

    White

     

    Motor Phase B (V)

    White

    Red

    Hall 2

    Red

    Limit – Output

    Red

     

    Motor Phase C (W)

    Black

    White

    Hall 3

    Black

    Home Output

    Black

     

    Motor Ground

    Green

     

    Hall Ground

    Green

    Limit & Home PWR *

    Brown

     

    Thermal Switch+

    Blue

     

    Hall +5VDC

    Brown

    Limit & Home GND

    Green

     

    Thermal Switch–

    Orange

               


    Modular Magnet Track:
    Installation Refer to Figure 2-3. Some magnets are provided in modular segments. This is the recommended procedure to install these modular magnet track sections.
    Note: It is recommended that rubber coated tool handles be used to reduce injury (pinching fingers etc.) and protect the surface of the magnets.
    1.Bolt the coil assembly onto the underside of the slide (carriage). Ensure the leads extend in the proper direction.
    2.Install the magnet track on the base–plate adjacent to or between the linear bearing. Magnet track ends should not oppose each other. Place a 0.025” ± 0.005” thick non magnetic shim on the magnet track. The shim thickness must be equal to the recommended air gap (space between the coil assembly and the magnet track).

    Figure 2-3 Modular Magnet Track Installation

    Base
    Slide


    Coil Assembly


    Rail

    Install one section of magnet track

    Move Slide to this side after coil is installed











    3.Hold the slide with a firm grip and move it over the magnet track section/shim.
    Note: The slide will be drawn forcefully towards the magnet track and may overshoot the rails if not held firmly. Check the space between the shim and the coil assembly. If the space between the shim and the coil assembly is large, uniformly loosen the mounting screws allowing the coil assembly to be fully and evenly lowered onto the shim.
    Insert another shim thick enough to fill the gap between the coil assembly and the slide, see Figure 2-4.
    Tighten the mounting screws once again.

    Figure 2-4 Air Gap Adjustment

    Slide


    Coil Assembly


    Rail

    Magnet


    Base
    Shim(if necessary)

    Air Gap(0.30 +- 0.005)









    4.Install the remaining magnet track sections on the base plate. See Figure 2-5.
    5.Remove the air–gap setting shim from the magnet track before use.

    Figure 2-5 Modular Magnet Track Installation

    Install other section of magnet track with slide positioned as shown

    Guide Rail














    Operation Considerations:
    The motor must always be operated within the specified operating parameter limits. Exceeding those limits will permanently damage the motor Refer to the motor specifications for operating parameter limits. The motor must never touch the magnets during operation.
    The air gap must be maintained over full length of travel.
    Remove the shim that sets the air gap between the motor and the magnets prior to operation.
    Note: Be aware that the total bearing load includes the magnetic attractive force.
    The following steps must be completed to ensure safe and proper operation.
    1.Verify that all electrical wiring and cables are properly connected. Refer to the manual provided with the control for this information.
    2.Adjust the servo drive current to match the motor’s current specification.
    3.Refer to the motor specifications for operating parameters. Adjust the control parameters as necessary to the motor data specifications.
    4.Adjust the control for the proper P.I.D. loop tuning. Begin at a low gain setting and increase the gain as necessary.
    5.Strain relieve the wires prior to operating.

    AY1763A00 Leadwire Connection:

    Motor Cable

       

    Hall Cable

     

    Limit Cable

       

    Signal Name

    Wire Color

     

    Signal Name

    Wire Color

    Signal Name

    Wire Color

     
     

    LinDrive

    Trap

           

    Motor Phase A (U)

    Red

    Black

    Hall 1

    White

    Limit + Output

    White

     

    Motor Phase B (V)

    White

    Red

    Hall 2

    Red

    Limit – Output

    Red

     

    Motor Phase C (W)

    Black

    White

    Hall 3

    Black

    Home Output

    Black

     

    Motor Ground

    Green

     

    Hall Ground

    Green

    Limit & Home PWR *

    Brown

     

    Thermal Switch+

    Blue

     

    Hall +5VDC

    Brown

    Limit & Home GND

    Green

     

    Thermal Switch–

    Orange

               


    Brushless Linear Cog Free Servo Motor
    1. Install the coil and magnet assemblies. While mounting the coil, be sure to adjust coil assembly so it is centered within the magnet assembly with equal air gap in the vertical and horizontal positions. See Figure 2-6.
    2. Verify that the coil assembly is centered within the magnet assembly with equal air gap in the vertical and horizontal positions along its entire length of travel. The coil assembly must never be allowed to touch the magnets at any point from one end of travel to the other.
    Note: For modular magnet mounting, magnets are mounted end–to–end without spacing. The mounting hole pattern is repeating and is unaffected by magnet segments. Hole pattern repeats across joining ends of magnets.

    Multiple Coil Assembly Operation
    In addition to maintaining an air gap, multiple coil assemblies must also maintain a spacing factor of 2.4”. In other words, the space between coil assemblies may vary, however, the distance from the front end of the first coil assembly to the front end of the next must be a multiple of 2.4”. See Figure 2-6.
    Ensure that this factor is established at the time of installation

    Figure 2-6 Air Gap Spacing

    Coil Assembly

    Horizontal Air Gap

    Vertical Air Gap

    Vertical Air Gap

    Mounting Plate


    Horizontal Air Gap

    Magnet Assembly


    Machine Base











    Operation Considerations
    The motor must always be operated within the specified operating parameter limits. Exceeding those limits will permanently damage the motor.
    The motor must never touch the magnets during operation. Equal horizontal and vertical air gap must be maintained. Remove the shim that sets the air gap between the motor and the magnets prior to operation. Note: Be aware that the total bearing load includes the magnetic attractive force. The following steps must be completed to ensure safe and proper operation.
    1. Verify that all electrical wiring and cables are properly connected. Refer to the manual provided with the control for this information.
    2. Adjust the servo drive current to match the motor’s current specification.
    3. Refer to the motor specifications for operating parameters. Adjust the control parameters as necessary to the motor data specifications.
    4. Adjust the control for the proper P.I.D. loop tuning. Begin at a low gain setting and increase the gain as necessary.
    5. Strain relieve the wires prior to operating.

    AY1763A00 Leadwire Connection

    Motor Cable

       

    Hall Cable

     

    Limit Cable

       

    Signal Name

    Wire Color

     

    Signal Name

    Wire Color

    Signal Name

    Wire Color

     
     

    LinDrive

    Trap

           

    Motor Phase A (U)

    Red

    Black

    Hall 1

    White

    Limit + Output

    White

     

    Motor Phase B (V)

    White

    Red

    Hall 2

    Red

    Limit – Output

    Red

     

    Motor Phase C (W)

    Black

    White

    Hall 3

    Black

    Home Output

    Black

     

    Motor Ground

    Green

     

    Hall Ground

    Green

    Limit & Home PWR *

    Brown

     

    Thermal Switch+

    Blue

     

    Hall +5VDC

    Brown

    Limit & Home GND

    Green

     

    Thermal Switch–

    Orange

               


    LD9073A00 Hall Sensor Cable Connections (6 pin to flying leads)


    Pin# Color Description
    1 Black C
    2 Red B
    3   N.C.
    4 Green Ground
    5 White A
    6 Brown +5VDC

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